Clinton T. Rubin
SUNY Distinguished Professor and Chair
Department of Biomedical Engineering
Director, Center for Biotechnology
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The major research focus of our lab's work is targeted towards understanding the cellular mechanisms responsible for the growth, healing and homeostasis of bone. More specifically, we are interested in how biophysical stimuli (e.g., mechanical, electrical, ultrasound) mediate these responses. The clinical significance of this work is applicable to the inhibition of osteopenia, the promotion of bony ingrowth into prostheses or skeletal defects and the acceleration of fracture healing. These goals are approached via interdisciplinary studies at the biochemical, molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, computational (e.g., FEM) and clinical levels. Our lab is also very interested in how mechanical signals bias the fate selection of mesenchymal and hematopoietic stem cells, as a means of treating obesity and diabetes through developmental, rather than metabolic pathways.
Dr. Rubin’s research into non-invasive, non-pharmacological intervention to control osteoporosis was referenced in National Geographic’s January 2001 article about surviving space travel. His studies show that the application of extremely low level strains to animals and humans will increase bone formation and thus may represent the much sought after “anabolic” stimulus in bone.
Dr. Rubin is also working in collaboration with Marodyne Medical to bring Low Intensity Vibration to the clinic for non-drug therapies for injury and disease.
Our work on mechanical biasing of stem cells away from fat and towards bone, has inspired cartoonist Nicole Hollander to capture the "translational essence" of the work. The two-panel carton strip titled "Sylvia" was published around the world, on May 5, 2008.
Cartoon Posted with permission of N. Hollander.
- Res. Fellow - Biomechanics, Brigham & Women's Hosp. Boston, MA, 1984-1985
- Res. Assoc. - Cell Biology, Tufts Univ., Boston, MA, 1983-1984
- Ph.D. - Anatomy, Univ. of Bristol, Bristol, U.K., 1983
- B.A. - Physiology, Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA, 1977
- 2000 - pres Chair, Department of Biomedical Engineering
- 1997 - pres Visiting Scientist, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY
- 1997 - pres Director, Center for Advanced Technology in Medical Biotechnology, New York State office of Science, Technology and Academic Research
- 1995 - 2000 Director, Program in Biomedical Engineering, S.U.N.Y., Stony Brook.
- 1992 - pres Professor of Orthopaedics, Anatomy, Molecular Biophysics & Mechanical Eng. S.U.N.Y., Stony Brook.
- 1987 - pres Director, Musculo-Skeletal Research Laboratory, S.U.N.Y., Stony Brook.
- 1987 - 1992 Associate Professor of Orthopaedics, Anatomy, & Mechanical Engineering, S.U.N.Y., Stony Brook.
- 1984 - 1987 Assistant Professor of Anatomy & Cell Biol., Tufts Univ. School Med., Boston, Mass.
Publications via Google Scholar
- Green, D.E., Adler, B.J., Chan, M.E., Lennon, J., Acerbo, A.S., Miller, L.M., Rubin, C.T. (2013) Altered ultrastructure of bone as triggered by irradiation facilitates the rapid erosion of the matrix by both cellular and physicochemical processes. PLoS One 8(5):e64952. doi:journal.pone.0064952
Chan, M.E., Adler, B.J., Green, D.E. & Rubin, C.T. (2012) Bone Structure and B-Cell Populations, Crippled by Obesity, are Partially Rescued by Brief Daily Exposure to Low Magnitude Mechanical Signals J. FASEB (e-pub ahead of print).
Thompson, W., Rubin, C.T. & Rubin, J. (2012) Mechanical Regulation of Signaling Pathways in Bone. Gene 503:179–193
Pagnotti, G., Adler, B., Green, D., Chan, M.E., Shroyer, K., Beamer, W., Rubin, J. & Rubin, C.T. (2012) Low magnitude mechanical signals mitigate osteopenia without compromising longevity in an aged murine model of spontaneous granulosa cell ovarian cancer. Bone (epub ahead of print).
Green, D., Adler, B., Chan, E. & Rubin, C.T. (2012) Devastation of adult stem cell pools by irradiation precedes collapse of trabecular bone quality and quantity. J. Bone & Mineral Research 27:749–759
Sen, B., Guilluy, C., Xie, Z., Case, N., Syner, M., Thomas, J., Oguz, I., Rubin, C.T., Burridge, K. & Rubin, J. (2012) Mechanically induced focal adhesion assembly amplifies anti-adipogenic pathways in mesenchymal stem cells. Stem Cells 29:1829-36
- Sen, B., Xie, Z, Case, N., Styner, M, Rubin, C. & Rubin, J. (2011) Refractory Periods Incorporated into a Loading Timetable Augment the Mechanical Stimulation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells. J Biomechanics 44:593-599.
- Muir, J., Judex, S., Qin, Y-X. & Rubin, C. (2011) Loss of postural stability caused by ninety days of bed rest is mitigated by low magnitude mechanical signals. Gait & Posture 33:429-435.
- Ozcivici, E., Luu, Y-K., Rubin, C.T., & Judex, S. (2010) High Frequency, Low Magnitude Mechanical Signals Protect Against a Disuse Induced Decline in Bone Marrow Osteoprogenitors and Augment Bone Recovery during Reambulation. PLoS ONE 5(6): e11178. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0011178.
- Kiel, D., Hannan, M., Barton, B., Bouxsein, M., Lang, T., Brown, K., Shane, E., Magaziner, J, Zimmerman, S, Harris, T. & Rubin, C. (2009) Low Magnitude Mechanical Stimulation to Improve Musculoskeletal Health in Older Persons: The VIBES Trial. J. Clinical Trials. 7:354-67.
- Luu, Y.K., Ozcivici, E., Capilla, E., Adler, B., Chan, E., Shroyer, K., Judex, S., Pessin, J.E. & Rubin, C.T., (2010). Development of diet induced fatty liver disease in the aging mouse is attenuated by low magnitude mechanical signals. (2010) Int. J. Obesity (in press).
- Ozcivici, E., Luu, Y-K, Adler, B., Qin, Y-X, Rubin, J., Judex, S & Rubin, C.T. (2009) Mechanical Signals as Anabolic Agents in Bone Nature Reviews Rheumatology. 6:50-59.
- Goodship, A., Lawes, T. & Rubin, C. (2009) Low magnitude high frequency mechanical signals accelerate and augment endochondral bone repair. J. Orth. Res. 27:922-930.
- Lee, B.J., Cox, G.A., Maddatu, T.P., Judex, S. & Rubin, C.T. (2009) Devastation of bone tissue in the appendicular skeleton parallels the progression of neuromuscular disease. J. Neuromusc. Int. 9:215-24.
- Sen, B., Styner, M., Xie, Z., Case, N., Rubin, C.T. & Rubin, J. (2009) Mechanical loading regulates NFATC1 and & b-catenin signaling through a GSK3 &b- control node. J. Biol. Chem. 284:34607-17.
- Luu, Y.K., Pessin, J.E., Judex, S., Rubin, J. & Rubin, C.T. (2009) Mechanical signals as a non-invasive means to influence mesenchymal stem cell fate, promoting bone and suppressing the fat phenotype. Int. Soc. Bone & Mineral Res. Bone-Key 2009 6:132-149.
- Patel, M., Talish, R., Rubin, C. & Jo, H. (2009) Low magnitude and high frequency mechanical loading prevents decreased bone formation responses of 2T3 preosteoblasts. J. Chem. Bio. 106:306-16.
- Holguin, N., Muir, J., Rubin, C & Judex, S. (2009) Short applications of very low-magnitude vibrations attenuate expansion of the intervertebral disc during extended bed rest. Spine 9:470-477.
- Luu, Y.K., Capilla, E., Pessin, J., Rosen, C., Gilsanz, V., Judex, S. & Rubin, C. (2009) Mechanical promotion of mesenchymal stem cell proliferation and differentiation prevents dietary induced obesity while enhancing osteogenesis. J. Bone & Min. Res. 24:50-61.
- Luu, Y.K., Lublinsky, S., Ozcivici, E., Capilla, E., Pessin, J., Rubin, C & Judex, S. (2008). In vivo quantification of subcutaneous and visceral adiposity by micro computed tomography in a small animal model. J. Engineering Medical Physics. (in press).
- Sen, B., Xie, Z., Case, N., Ma, M., Rubin, C. & Rubin, J. (2008) Mechanical strain prevents adipogenesis in mesenchymal stem cells by stimulating a durable β-catenin signal. Endocrinology. (in press).
- Lublinsky, S., Luu, Y.K., Rubin, C.T., & Judex, S. (2008) Automated Separation of Visceral and Subcutaneous Adiposity in Micro Computed Tomographies of Mice. J. Digital Imaging. (in press).
- Mittra, E., Rubin, C., Gruber, B., Qin, Y. (2008) Evaluation of trabecular mechanical and microstructural propertiesin human calcaneal bone of advanced age using mechanical testing, microCT, and DXA. Journal of Biomechanics. 41: 368-375.
- Zhi, J., Xu, G., Rubin, C. & Hadjiargyrou, M. (2008) The lipogenic gene Spot 14 is activated in bone by disuse, yet remains unaffected by mechanical signals anabolic to the skeleton. Calc. Tiss. Intl. 82(2):148-54.
- Xie, L., Rubin, C. & Judex, S. (2008) Enhancement of the adolescent murine musculoskeletal system using low-level mechanical vibrations. J. Applied Phys. 104:1056-62.
- Rubin, J. & Rubin, C. (2008) Commentary: Functional Adaptation to Loading of a Single Bone Is Neuronally Regulated and Involves Multiple Bones. J. Bone & Min. Res. 23:1369-1371.
- Rubin, C., Capilla, E., Luu, Y-K, Busa, B., Rosen, C., Pessin, J. & Judex, S. (2007) Adipogenesis is Suppressed by Brief, Daily Exposure to High Frequency, Extremely Low Magnitude Mechanical Signals. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 104:17879-17884
- Judex, S, Lei, X, Han, D. & Rubin, C. (2007) Low-Magnitude Mechanical Signals that Stimulate Bone Formation in the Ovariectomized Rat are Dependent on the Applied Frequency but not on the Strain Magnitude. J. Biomechanics. 40:1333-1339
- Garman, R.A., Gaudette, G., Donahue, L.R, Rubin, C.T., Judex, S. (2007) Acceleratory motions, applied in the absence of weightbearing, can be anabolic to bone. J. Orth. Research . J. Orthopaedic Research. 25:732-740
- Garman R, Rubin C & Judex S (2007) Small Oscillatory Accelerations, Independent of Matrix Deformations, Increase Osteoblast Activity and Enhance Bone Morphology. PLoS ONE 2(7): e653. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000653
- Mittra, E., Rubin, C., Gruber, B. & Qin, Y-X. (2007) Evaluation of trabecular mechanical and microstructural properties in human calcaneal bone of advanced age using mechanical testing, micro-CT, and DXA. J. Biomech. Epub ahead of print
- Rubin, C., Judex, S. & Qin, Y-X. (2006) Low-level mechanical signals and their potential as a non-pharmacologic intervention for osteoporosis. /Age and Ageing / 35:32-36
- Judex, S, Lei, X, Han, D. & Rubin, C. (2006) Low-Magnitude Mechanical Signals that Stimulate Bone Formation in the Ovariectomized Rat are Dependent on the Applied Frequency but not on the Strain Magnitude. J. Biomechanics. /(in press).
- Rubin, J., Rubin, C. & Jacobs, C. (2006). Molecular Pathways Mediating Mechanical Signaling in Bone. Gene. (in press, available on line).
- Mittra, E., Rubin, C. & Qin, Y-X. (2005) Interrelationship of trabecular mechanical and microstructural properties in sheep trabecular bone. J. Biomech. 38:1229-1237
- Busa B, Miller LM, Rubin CT, Qin YX, & Judex S. (2005) Rapid establishment of chemical and mechanical properties during lamellar bone formation. Calcif Tissue Int. 77:386-94.
- Murfee, W., Hammett, L., Evans, C., Xie, L., Squire, M., Rubin, C., Judex, S. & Skalak, T. (2005). High-frequency low-magnitude vibrations suppress the number of blood vessels per muscle fiber in mouse soleus muscle. J. App. Physiol. 98:2376-2380
- Judex S, Zhong N, Squire ME, Ye K, Donahue LR, & Rubin, C. (2005) Mechanical modulation of molecular signals which regulate anabolic and catabolic activity in bone tissue. J Cell Biochem. 94:982-994.
- Zhong N, Garman RA, Squire ME, Donahue LR, Rubin C & Judex, S. (2005) Gene expression patterns in bone after 4 days of hind-limb unloading in two inbred strains of mice. Aviat Space Environ Med; 76:530-535.
- Hannan, M., Cheng, D., Greeen, E., Swift, C., Rubin, C. & Kiel, D. (2004) Establishing the compliance in elderly women for use of a low level mechanical stress device in a clinical osteoporosis study. Osteoporosis International 15:918-926
- Judex, S., Garman, S., Squire, M., Bhusa, B., Donahue, L.R. & Rubin, C.T. (2004) Genetically linked site-specificity of disuse osteoporosis. J.Bone and Mineral Research. 19:607-614
- Squire, M., Donahue, L.R., Rubin, C.T., Judex, S. (2004) Genetic variations that regulate bone morphology in the male skeleton do not influence its susceptibility to mechanical unloading. Bone 35(6), 1353-1360.
- Judex, S., Garman, S., Squire, M., Donahue, L.R. & Rubin, C.T.(2004) Genetically based influences on the site-specific regulation of trabecular and cortical bone morphology. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. 19:600-607
- Rubin, C.T., Recker, R., Raab, D., Ryaby, J., McCabe, J. & McLeod,K.J. (2004) Prevention of Post-Menopausal Bone Loss by a Low Magnitude, High Frequency Mechanical Stimuli; A Clinical Trial Assessing Compliance, Efficacy And Safety. J. Bone & Mineral Research. 19:343-351
- Ward, K., Alsop, C., Brown, S., Caulton, J., Rubin, C., Adams, J.& Mughal, M. (2004) Low magnitude, high frequency loading therapy increases volumetric tibial bone mineral density in children with disabling conditions. J. Bone & Mineral Research: 19:360-369
- Rubin, C., Pope, M, Fritton, C., Magnusson, M., Hansson, T. & McLeod, K. (2003). Transmissibilityof 15-35 Hz vibrations to the human hip and lumbar spine: Determiningthe physiologic feasibility of delivering low-level, anabolic mechanicalstimuli to skeletal regions at greatest risk of fracture due to osteoporosis.Spine; 28:2621-2627
- Qin, Y-X., Kaplan, T., Saldana, A. and Rubin, C.T. (2003): Fluid Pressure Gradients, Arising from Oscillations in Intramedullary Pressure, is Correlated with the Formation of Bone and Inhibition of Intracortical Porosity. J Biomech, 36:1427-1437.
- Judex S, Boyd SK, Qin YX, Turner S, Ye K, Mueller R, Rubin C (2003)Adaptations of Trabecular Bone to Low Magnitude Vibrations Result in More UniformStress and Strain Under Load. Ann Biomed Eng. 31:12-20.
- Judex, S., Boyd, S., Qin, Y-X, Miller, L., Müller, R., Rubin,
C. (2003) Combining
High-Resolution MicroCT with Material Composition to Define the Quality
of Bone Tissue. Current Osteoporosis Reports. 1:11-19
- Judex, S., Donahue, L.R., Rubin, C.T. (2002) Genotypic
predisposition to osteoporosis is paralleled by an enhanced sensitivity
to signals anabolic to the skeleton. The FASEB Journa Express Article.
- Hadjiargyrou M, Lombardo F, Zhao S, Ahrens W, Joo J, Ahn H, White
DW, Rubin CT. Transciptional
profiling of bone regeneration: Insight into the molecular complexity
of wound repair. J Biol Chem 2002.
- Rubin C, Turner AS, Mallinckrodt C, Jerome C, McLeod K, Bain S. Mechanical
strain, induced noninvasively in the high-frequency domain, is anabolic
to cancellous bone, but not cortical bone. Bone 2002 Mar; 30(3):445-52.
- Rubin C, Turner AS, Muller R, Mittra E, McLeod K, Lin W, Qin YX.
and quality of trabecular bone in the femur are enhanced by a strongly
anabolic, noninvasive mechanical intervention. J Bone Miner Res
2002 Feb; 17(2):349-57.
- Rubin, C., Turner, S. Bain, S., Mallinckrodt, C. & McLeod, K.
Low Level Mechanical Signals are Anabolic to Trabecular Bone. Nature
- Rubin C, Xu G, Judex S. The
anabolic activity of bone tissue, suppressed by disuse, is normalized
by brief exposure to extremely low-magnitude mechanical stimuli.
FASEB J. 2001; 15(12):2225-9.
- D. W. Sommerfeldt, C. T. Rubin. (2001) Biology
of bone and how it orchestrates the form and function of the skeleton.
Eur Spine J, DOI 10.1007/s005860100283
- Rubin, C, Sommerfeldt, D, Judex, S & Qin, Y-X. (2001) Inhibition
of Osteopenia by Low Magnitude, High Frequency Mechanical Stimuli.
Drug Discovery Today 6:848-858.
- Rubin, C., Bolander, M., Ryaby, J. & Hadjiargyrou, M. (2001)
use of low intensity ultrasound to accelerate the healing of fractures.
J. Bone & Jt. Surg. 83:259-70.
- Lin, W., Qin, Y.-X. & Rubin, C.T. (2001) Ultrasonic wave propagation
in trabecular bone predicted by the stratified model. Annals of Biomed.
- Rubin, C., Alikhani, M. and Rubin, J. (2001) Comparative Skeletal
Structure. In: Encyclopedia Life Sciences; Nature Press.
- Sommerfeldt DW, McLeod KJ, Rubin CT, Hadjiargyrou M. Differential
phosphorylation of paxillin in response to surface-bound serum proteins
during early osteoblast adhesion. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001
Jul 13; 285(2):355-63.
- Fritton, S.P., McLeod, K.J., Rubin, C.T. (2000) Quantifying
the strain history of bone: spatial uniformity and self-similarity of
low magnitude strains. J. Biomech. 33:317-326.
- Hadjiargyrou, M., Ahrens, W. & Rubin, C. (2000) Expression
and function of CYR-61 in the healing fracture. J. Bone & Min.
- Rubin, C. and Rubin, J. (2000) Biomechanics of Bone. Primer for Metabolic
Bone Diseases and Disorders of Mineral Metabolism. ed: M. Fauvus. Lippincott-Raven
ch 5: p 39-42
- Vander Molen, M.A., Donahue. H.J., Rubin, C.T. & McLeod, K.J.
junctions alter the kinetics of electric field induced differentiation
in osteoblastic cells. Bone . 27(2):227-31
- Rubin, J., Rubin, H., & Rubin, C. (1999) Constraints of experimental
paradigms used to model the aging skeleton. The Aging Skeleton, eds:
C.Rosen, J.Glowacki & J.Bilizekian. Acad. Press Ch.4; p27-36.
- Rubin, C., Zhi, J., Xu, G., Cute, M., McLeod, K. and Hadjiargyrou,
M. (1999) Expression of novel gene products upregulated by disuse is
normalized by an osteogenic mechanical stimulus: NASA Space Biology
Program; Biomedical Investigators' Workshop, Jan. 11-13, League City,
- McLeod, K.J., Turner, A.S., Mallinckrodt, C.H. & Rubin, C.T. (1999)
Frequency and duration optimization of dynamic loading protocols for
the reversal of osteopenia. 45th Ann. Mtg. Orthop. Res. Soc.:24:571
- Qin, Y.X., McLeod, K.J., Lin, W., Gray, J., Turner, A.S. & Rubin,
C.T. (1999) Trabecular strength is enhanced by low magnitude and high
frequency mechanical stimuli as determined by CT number, ultrasonic
velocity and force-displacement measurements. 45th Ann. Mtg. Orthop.
Res. Soc. 24:568.
- Rubin, J. & Rubin, C. (1999) Genetic and Epigenetic Influences on
Bone Strength. In: Osteoporosis: Genetics, Prevention and Treatment,
eds: J. Adams & B. Lukert, Kluwer Publ., Newt., MA p.57-72 .
- Rubin, J., Fan, X., Biskobing, D., Taylor, W. & Rubin, C. (1999) Osteoclast
formation is attenuated in a dose-dependent and site-specific manner
by physiologic levels of strain. J. Orth. Res, 17:639-645.
- Huang, R., McLeod, K. & Rubin, C. (1999) Changes in the dynamics of
muscle contraction as a function of age; A contributing factor to the
etiology of osteoporosis? J. Gerontology 54:352-357.
- Rubin, C., Recker, R., Cullen, D., Ryaby, J. & McLeod, K. (1998) Prevention
of bone loss in a post-menopausal population by low-level biomechanical
intervention. Amer. Sc. Bone Min Res: 23:1106
- Rubin, C. Turner, S., Jerome, C. Strachan, M., Bain, S., & McLeod,
K. (1998). Low magnitude, high frequency mechanical stimulation increases
trabecular density of the proximal femur. Amer Soc.Bone Min Res: 23:1126
- Qin, Y-X., Rubin, C. & McLeod, K. (1998) Nonlinear dependence of loading
intensity and cycle number in the maintenance of bone mass and morphology.
J. Orth. Res. 16:482-489.
- Hadjiargyrou, M., Halsey, M., Ahrens, W., Rightmire, E., McLeod, K
& Rubin, C. (1998) Cloning of a novel cDNA expressed during the early
stages of fracture healing. Biochm & Biophys. Res. Com 249:879-884
- Otter, M., Rubin, C., and McLeod, K. (1998) Stochastic modulation
of cell shape by low-level mechanical loading. The Amer. J. Med. Sciences
- Demes, B., Stern, J., Larson, S. & Hausman, M, Rubin, C., (1998) Bone
strain in the macaque ulna during locomotion. J. Phys. Anthrop 106:87-100
- Hadjiargyrou, M., McLeod, K., Ryaby, J. & Rubin, C.(1998) Augmentation
of Fracture Healing by Low Intensity Ultrasound.. Clin. Orth. Rel. Res.
- Adams, D., Spirt, A., Brown, T., Fritton, S., Rubin, C. & Brand, R.
(1997) Testing the "daily stress stimulus" hypothesis of bone remodeling.
- Fritton, J., Rubin, C., Qin, Y.-X. & McLeod, K. (1997) Vibration in
the skeleton. Part I: Development of a resonance-based whole body vibration
device. J. Biomed Eng. 25:831-839.
- Gross, T.S., Edwards, J.L., McLeod, K.J. & Rubin, C.T. (1997) Strain
gradients correlate with sites of periosteal bone formation. J. Bone
Min. Res. 12(6):982-988.
- Rubin, C. T. & McLeod, K. (1996) Inhibition of osteopenia by biophysical
intervention. In: Osteoporosis, Eds: R. Marcus, J. Kelsey & D. Feldman.
Academic Press Ch. ch. 5, pp351-371.
- Rubin, C., Sun, Y-Q, Hadjiargyrou, M. & McLeod, K. (1999) Increased
expression of MMP-1 mRNA in osteocytes precedes bone resorption as stimulated
by disuse: Evidence for the autoregulation of the bone's mechanical
environment? J. Orth. Res.; 17: 354-361.
- Rubin, C., Gross, T., Qin, Y., Fritton, S., Guilak, F. & McLeod, K.J.
(1996) Differentiation of bone-tissue remodeling response to axial and
torsional loading. J. Bone Jt. Surg. 78(10):1523-1533.
- Qin, Y., McLeod, K., Guilak, F. and Rubin, C. (1996) Correlation of
bony ingrowth with the distribution of stress and strain parameters
surrounding a porous-coated implant. J. Orth. Res. 14:862-870.
- Rubin, J., McLeod, K., Titus, L., Nanes, M., Catherwood, B. and Rubin,
C. (1996) Formation of osteoclast-like cells is suppressed by low frequency,
low intensity electric fields. J. Orth. Res. 14:7-15.
- Ricos, V., Pedersen, D., Brown, T, Rubin, C., & Brand, R. (1996) Effects
of anisotropy and material axis registration on computed stress and
strain distributions in the turkey ulna. J. Biomec. 29:261-267.
- Sun, Y-Q., McLeod, K. & Rubin, C. (1995) Mechanically induced periosteal
bone formation is paralleled by the upregulation of collagen type one
mRNA in osteocytes as measured by IS-RT-PCR. Calc. Tiss. Intl. 57:456-462.
- Gross, T. and Rubin, C. (1995) Uniformity of resorptive bone loss
induced by disuse. J. Orth. Res. 13(5):708-714.
- Rubin, C.T., Gross, T.S., McLeod, K.J. & Bain, S.D. (1995) Morphologic
stages in lamellar bone formation stimulated by a potent mechanical
stimulus. J. Bone Min. Res. 10(3):488-495.
- Rubin, C. & McLeod (1994) Promotion of bony ingrowth by frequency
specific, low amplitude mechanical strains. John Charnley Award of The
Hip Society. Clin. Orth. Rel. Res. 298:165-174
- Method for inducing a current and voltage in living tissue for the prevention of bone loss. Patent #4,993,413
- Mechanical loading protocol for the prevention of osteoporosis, acceleration of fracture healing, and the promotion of bony ingrowth. #5,103,808
- Method for the promotion of growth, ingrowth and healing of bone tissue and the prevention of osteopenia by mechanical loading of the bone tissue. #5,191,880
- Apparatus for the induction of high frequency strains into the axial skeleton to promote growth and repair. #5,273,028
- Non-Invasive method and means for in-vivo bone-growth stimulation. #5,376,065
- Method and system for therapeutically treating bone fractures and osteoporosis. #5,997,490
- Method and system for therapeutically treating bone fractures and osteoporosis. #6,022,349
- Chondrogenic and osteogenic genes to be used in the treatment of metabolic bone disease. Pending
- Frequency scanning ultrasound as a non-invasive means to determine the physical properties of bone. Pending
- Improvement of postural stability using low level, high frequency mechanical oscillations. Pending