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Richard A. F. Clark

T: 631.444.3843
F: TBA
E: richard.clark@stonybrook.edu

Office:
T-18, Room 092
Stony Brook, NY
11794-8181


Richard A. F. Clark

Research Focus

The Wound Healing Laboratory in the Department of Dermatology, led by Richard Clark, has found that skin cell activation is the rate limiting step in new tissue formation of healing cutaneous wounds. These cells switch their cell surface receptors from those that recognize normal connective tissue to those that recognize the new wound matrix. This switch allows parenchymal invasion of the wound space. As a salient example, avb3, the fibrin receptor, is expressed only on the tips of capillary sprouts invading the wound clot and is required for endothelial cell invasion of the clot. In contrast, connective tissue fibroblasts do not move on fibrin. They require fibronectin, another protein found in the fibrin clot, for their movement. Clark and his group have published their finding in Science, the Journal of Cell Biology, the Journal of Cell Science, the American Journal of Pathology, and the Journal of Investigative Dermatology, among others.

Figure 1. Partial menu of human recombinant fibronectin domains. From these domains we identified that the classic RGD cell binding domain (C), the heparin II domain (H) and the variable domain (V) were necessary and sufficient for optimal migration of human adult dermal fibroblasts.

Education

  • 1966 S.B. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, MA
  • 1971 M.S. Department of Microbiology, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY
  • 1971 M.D. University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY

Professional Experience

  • Internship and Residencies:
    • 1971–1972 Medical Intern, Strong Memorial Hospital, Rochester, NY
    • 1972–1973 Medical Resident, Strong Memorial Hospital, Rochester, NY
    • 1976–1977 Dermatology Resident, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA
  • Research Fellowships:
    • 1973–76 Clinical Associate, Laboratory of Clinical Investigation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, National Institutes of Health
    • 1977–78 Dermatology Fellow, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA
  • Academic Appointments:
    • 1979 –1981 Instructor in Dermatology, Harvard Medical School
    • 1981 –1986 Assistant Professor in Medicine and Dermatology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center
    • 1986 –1990 Associate Professor in Dermatology and Medicine, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center
    • 1990 - Present Professor, Department of Dermatology, SUNY Stony Brook
    • 1990 - 2003 Chair, Department of Dermatology, SUNY Stony Brook
    • 2000 - 2003 Adjunct Professor, Department of Bioengineering, SUNY Stony Brook
    • 2001 - Present Adjunct Professor of Medicine, SUNY Stony Brook
    • 2003 - Present Professor of Biomedical Engineering, SUNY Stony Brook
    • 2003 - Present Director, Center for Tissue Engineering
  • Hospital Appointments:
    • 1979 –1981 Clinical Associate in Dermatology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA
    • 1980 –1981 Research Associate in Pathology, Beth Israel Hospital, Boston, MA
    • 1980 –1981 Assistant in Dermatology, Beth Israel Hospital, Boston, MA
    • 1981 –1988 Member, Division of Clinical Immunology, Department of Medicine, National Jewish Center, Denver, CO
    • 1986 –1988 Director, Dermatology Program, Departments of Medicine and Pediatrics, National Jewish Center, Denver, CO
    • 1988 –1990 Head, Division of Dermatology, Departments of Medicine and Pediatrics, National Jewish Center, Denver, CO
    • 1990 - 2003 Chief of Service, Dermatology, University Hospital, SUNY Stony Brook
    • 2003 – Present Member, Dermatology Service, University Hospital, SUNY Stony Brook

Honors and Awards

  • 1962 –1966 Store Scholarship, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
  • 1966 –1968 Alumni Scholarship, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry
  • 1968 –1971 Clinical Investigator Training Fellowship
  • 1970 Election to Alpha Omega Alpha
  • 1971 Distinction in Research, University of Rochester School of Medicine &Dentistry
  • 1975 American Academy of Allergy Travel Grant
  • 1979 Society for Investigative Dermatology Award
  • 1979 Boston Medical Foundation Award
  • 1989 Election to the American Society for Clinical Investigation
  • 1993 Election to the American Dermatology Association
  • 1995 Teaching Award, Department of Dermatology, SUNY at Stony Brook
  • 1996 NIH Merit Award
  • 1997 Election to the New York Dermatology Society
  • 1999 Election to the American Association of Physicians
  • 1999 Elected Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science
  • 2001 Program Excellence Award , Department of Dermatology, SUNY Stony Brook
  • 2002 Scholar, Harvard –Macy Institute, Leadership in Education

Professional Activities and Affiliations

  • Licensure and Certifications:
    • 1972 National Board of Medical Examiners
    • 1974 American Board of Internal Medicine
    • 1977 American Board of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
    • 1980 American Board of Dermatology
    • 1981 State of Colorado
    • 1990 State of New York
  • Professional Society Memberships:
    • 1977 Dermatology Foundation (DF)
    • 1979 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    • 1979 American Federation for Clinical Research (AFCR)
    • 1980 Society for Investigative Dermatology (SID)
    • 1981 American Academy of Dermatology (AAD)
    • 1983 American Academy of Allergy and Immunology (AAAI)
    • 1983 American Society of Cell Biology (ASCB)
    • 1989 American Society for Clinical Investigation (ASCI)
    • 1990 Wound Healing Society (WHS)
    • 1990 Long Island Dermatology Society
    • 1990 Association of Professors of Dermatology (APD)
    • 1991 Suffolk County Dermatology Society
    • 1993 American Dermatology Association (ADA)
    • 1994 New York Academy of Medicine, Dermatology Section
    • 1997 New York Dermatology Society
    • 1999 American Association of Physicians (AAP)
    • 2000 American Association of Medical Colleges (AAMC)
  • Professional Society, NIH, Editorial Board Offices and Committee Assignments:
    • 1989 - present Scientific Board, Eczema Association for Science and Education
    • 1990 - 1997 Associate Editor, J Cell Biochem
    • 1990 - 1994 Board of Directors, WHS
    • 1990 - 1996 Chair of Ethics Committee, WHS
    • 1990 - 1994 Chair, AAD and AAAI Liaison Task Force
    • 1991 - 1994 Scientific Board of Advisors, Curative Technologies, Inc.
    • 1992 - 1994 Program Committee, AAAI
    • 1992 - 1996 Member, NIA Liaison Committee, AAD
    • 1993 - 1996 Chair of Government Relations Committee, WHS
    • 1993 - 2000 Vice-Chair, Leader's Society, Dermatology Foundation
    • 1993 - 1996 Medical and Scientific Committee, Dermatology Foundation
    • 1993 - 1994 Chair, Dermatology Disease Section, AAAI
    • 1994 - 1995 Secretary, New York Academy of Medicine, Dermatology Section
    • 1994 - present Scientific Board, Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa Research Association
    • 1995 - 1996 President, New York Academy of Medicine, Dermatology Section
    • 1995 - 1996 President-elect, WHS
    • 1995 - 1999 Executive Committee, WHS
    • 1995 - 1999 NIAMS Special Grants Review Committee
    • 1996 - 1997 President, WHS
    • 1996 - 1999 Scientific Board of Advisors, Vitex, Inc.
    • 1997 - 1999 Vice-President, WHS
    • 1997 - 1999 Chair, Nominations Committee, WHS
    • 1997 - 2000 Chair, Government Relations Committee, WHS
    • 1997 - present Institutional Representative , ASCI
    • 1997 - 2002 Member, Government and Public Relations Committee, SID
    • 1998 - 2000 Chair, Government and Public Relations Committee, SID
    • 1998 - 1999 Member, Publications Committee, SID
    • 1999 - 2003 Board of Directors, APD
    • 2000 - present Representative , Academic Societies (CAS), AAMC
    • 2001 - 2005 Chair, NIA Liaison Task Force, AAD
    • 2001 - 2005 Member, Research Committee, AAD
    • 2001 - 2006 Patient Advocate Liaison, SID
    • 2002 - 2006 Chair, Patient Advocate Task Force, AAD
    • 2002 - 2006 Member, Government Affairs Committee, AAD
    • 2002 - 2006 Member, Research Committee, AAD
    • 2002 - 2004 Treasurer , Long Island Dermatology Society
    • 2002 - 2008 President-elect, Long Island Dermatology Society
    • 2002 - 2007 Associate Editor, Journal of Investigative Dermatology
    • 2002 Selection Committee for the AOA Glaser Teaching Award, AAMC
    • 2002 - 2007 Member, Scientific Advisory Committee, Ad Hoc Group for Medical Research Funding, AAMC
    • 2007 Member, Board of Directors, Society for Investigative Dermatology
    • 2003 Cutaneous Biology Core Center, Ad Hoc Study Section

Publications

Original Reports:
  • Vaughan JH, Jacox RF, Abraham GN, Clark, RA: Relationship between rheumatoid factor and intracytoplasmic inclusion. NY Acad Sci USA 168:111-121, 1969.
  • Abraham GN, Clark RA, Vaughan JH: Characterization of IgA rheumatoid factor, binding properties, and reactivity with and classes of human gamma G-globulin. Immunochemistry 9:301-316, 1972.
  • Clark RA, Abraham GN, Kyle R, Vaughan,JH: Gamma globulin complexes in rheumatoid arthritis and hypergammaglobulinemic purpura. J Rheum 1:54-65, 1974.
  • Clark RAF, Gallin JI, Kaplan AP: The selective eosinophil chemotactic activity of histamine. J Exp Med 142:1462-1476, 1975.
  • Clark RAF, Gallin JI, Kaplan AP: Mediator release from basophil granulocytes in chronic myelogenous leukemia: Demonstration of the eosinophil chemotactic activity of histamine. J Allergy Clin Immunol 58:623-634, 1976.
  • Clark RAF, Sandler JA, Gallin JI, Kaplan AP: Histamine modulation of eosinophil migration. J Immunol 118:137-145, 1977.
  • Clark RAF, Gallin JI, Kaplan AP: The nature of histamine control of eosinophil localization. In: Leukocyte Chemotaxis: Methods and Clinical Implications, Gallin, J.I., Quie, P.G., eds. New York: Raven Press, 195-210, 1978.
  • Clark RAF, Gallin JI, Fauci AS: Effect of in vivo prednisone on in vitro eosinophil and neutrophil adherence and locomotion. Blood 53:633-641, 1979.
  • Clark RAF, Dvorak HF, Colvin RB: Fibronectin in delayed-type hypersensitivity skin reactions: Associations with vessel permeability and endothelial cell activation. J Immunol 126:787-793, 1981.
  • Clark RAF, Quinn JH, Winn HJ, Lanigan JM, DellaPelle P, Colvin RB: Fibronectin is produced by blood vessels in response to injury. J Exp Med 156:646-651, 1982.
  • Norris DA, Clark RAF, Swigart LM, Huff JC, Weston WL, Howell SE: Fibronectin fragments are chemotactic for peripheral blood monocytes. J Immunol 129:1612-1618, 1982.
  • Finley J, Clark RAF, Colvin RB, Blackman R, Noe J, Rosen S: Patterns of immunofluorescent staining with antibodies to factor VIII related antigen, fibronectin and collagenous basement membrane protein in normal human skin and port wine stains. Arch Derm 118:971-975, 1982.
  • Clark RAF, Lanigan JM, DellaPelle P, Manseau E, Dvorak HF, Colvin RB: Fibronectin and fibrin provide a provisional matrix for epidermal cell migration during wound re-epithelialization. J Invest Derm 79:264-269, 1982.
  • Clark RAF, DellaPelle P, Manseau E, Lanigan JM, Dvorak HF, Colvin RB: Blood vessel fibronectin increases in conjunction with endothelial cell proliferation and capillary ingrowth during wound healing. J Invest Derm 79:269-276, 1982.
  • Clark RAF, Winn HJ, Dvorak HF, Colvin RB: Fibronectin beneath re-epithelializing epidermis in vivo: Sources and significance. J Invest Dermatol (Suppl) 80:26s-30s, 1983.
  • Grimwood RE, Huff JC, Harbell JW, Clark RAF: Fibronectin in basal cell epithelioma: Sources and significance. J Invest Dermatol 82:145-149, 1984.
  • Kubo M, Norris DA, Howell SE, Ryan SR, Clark RAF: Human keratinocytes synthesize, secrete and deposit fibronectin in the pericellular matrix. J Invest Dermatol 82:580-588, 1984.
  • Singer II, Kawka DW, Kazazis DM, Clark RAF: The in vivo co-distribution of fibronectin and actin fibers in granulation tissue. Immunofluorescence and electron microscopic studies of the fibronexus at the myofibroblast surface. J Cell Biol 98:2091-2106, 1984.
  • Clark RAF, Horsburgh CR, Hoffman AA, Dvorak HF, Mosesson MW, Colvin RB: Fibronectin deposition in delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions of normals and a patient with afibrinogenemia. J Clin Invest 74:1011-1016, 1984.
  • Behrens BL, Clark RAF, Marsh W, Larsen GL: Modulation of the late asthmatic response by antigen specific IgG in an animal model. Am Rev Resp Dis 130:1134-1139, 1984.
  • Hawkins RA, Claman HN, Clark RAF, Steigerwald JC: Increased dermal mast cell populations in progressive systemic sclerosis: A link in chronic fibrosis. Ann Int Med 102:182-186, 1985.
  • Clark RAF, Folkvord JM, Wertz RL: Fibronectin, as well as other extracellular matrix proteins, mediate human keratinocyte adherence. J Invest Dermatol 84:378-383, 1985.
  • Clark RAF, Nielsen L, Howell SE, Folkvord JM: Nonstratifying cultured keratinocytes synthesize both laminin and fibronectin but deposit only fibronectin in the pericellular matrix. J Cell Biochem 28:127-141, 1985.
  • Behrens BL, Clark RAF, Feldsien DC, Presley DM, Glezen LS, Graves JP, Larsen GL: Comparison of the histopathology of immediate and late asthmatic and cutaneous responses in a rabbit model. Chest 87S:153S-155S, 1985.
  • Claman HF, Jaffee B, Huff JC, Clark RAF: Chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) as a model for scleroderma. II. Mast cell depletion with deposition of immunoglobulins in the skin and fibrosis. Cell Immunol 94:73-84, 1985.
  • Tonnesen MG, Jenkins Jr D, Siegal SL, Lee LA, Huff JC, Clark RAF: Expression of fibronectin, laminin, and factor VIII-related antigen during development of the human cutaneous microvasculature. J Invest Dermatol 85:564-568, 1985.
  • Clark RAF, MasonRJ, Folkvord JM, McDonald JA: Fibronectin mediates adherence of rat alveolar type II cells via the fibroblastic cell-attachment domain. J Clin Invest 77:1831-1840, 1986.
  • Clark RAF, Folkvord JM, Nielsen LD: Either exogenous or endogenous fibronectin can promote adherence of human endothelial cells. J Cell Sci 82:263-280, 1986.
  • Grimwood RE, Ferris CF, Nielsen LD, Huff JC, Clark RAF: Basal cell carcinomas grown in nude mice produce and deposit fibronectin in the extracellular matrix. J Invest Dermatol 87:42-46, 1986.
  • Bowyer SL, Clark RAF, Hollister JR, Ragsdale CG, Sullivan DB: Juvenile dermatomyositis with exoskeleton calcification: Histologic findings and implication for pathogenesis and therapy. J Rheumatol 13:753-759, 1986.
  • Behrens BL, Clark RAF, Presley DM, Graves JP, Feldsein DC, Larsen GL: Comparison of the evolving histopathology of early and late cutaneous and asthmatic responses in rabbits a single antigen challenge. Lab Invest 56:101-113, 1987.
  • Horsburgh Jr CR, Clark RAF, Kirkpatrick CH: Lymphokines and platelets promote human monocyte adherence to fibrinogen and fibronectin in vitro. J Leuk Biol 41:14-24, 1987.
  • Wikner NE, Dixit VM, Frazier WA, Clark RAF: Human keratinocytes synthesize and secrete the extracellular matrix protein, thrombospondin. J Invest Dermatol 88:207-211, 1987.
  • McPherson JM, Ledger PW, Ksander G, Sawamura SJ, Conti A, Kinkaid S, Michaeli D,Clark RAF: The influence of heparin on the wound healing response to collagen implants in vivo. Coll Rel Res 8:83-100, 1988.
  • Mekori YA, Dobozin BS, Schocket AL, Kohler PA, Clark RAF: Delayed pressure urticaria histologically resembles cutaneous late-phase reactions. Arch Dermatol 124:230-235, 1988.
  • Grimwood RE, Baskin JB, Nielsen LD, Ferris CF, Clark RAF: Fibronectin extracellular matrix assembly by human epidermal cells implanted into athymic mice. J Invest Dermatol 90:434-440, 1988.
  • Adinoff AD, Tellez P, Clark RAF: Atopic dermatitis and aeroallergen contact sensitivity. J Allergy Clin Immunol 81:736-742, 1988.
  • Clark RAF, Wikner NE, Doherty DE, Norris DA: Cryptic chemotactic activity of fibronectin for human monocytes resides in the 120kDa fibroblastic cell-binding fragment. J Biol Chem 263:12115-12123, 1988.
  • Wikner NE, Persichitte KA, Baskin JB, Nielsen LD, Clark RAF: Transforming growth factor-beta stimulates the expression of fibronectin by human keratinocytes. J Invest Dermatol 91:207-212, 1988.
  • Folkvord JM, Viders D, Coleman-Smith A, Clark RAF: Optimization of immunofluorescence techniques for antigen detection in fixed skin specimens. J Histochem Cytochem 37:105-113, 1989.
  • Clark RAF, Folkvord JM, Hart CE, Murray MJ, McPherson JM: Platelet isoforms of PDGF stimulate fibroblasts to contract collagen gel matrices. J Clin Invest 84:1036-1040, 1989.
  • Clark RAF, Adinoff AD: Aeroallergen contact initiate flares of atopic dermatitis: patch tests are useful diagnostic tools. J Am Acad Dermatol 21:863-869, 1989.
  • Clark RAF, Adinoff AD: The relationship between positive aeroallergen patch test reactions and aeroallergen exacerbation of atopic dermatitis. Clin Immunol & Immunopath 53:S132-S140, 1989.
  • Welch MP, Odland GF, Clark RAF: Temporal relationships of f-actin bundle formation, collagen and fibronectin matrix assembly, and fibronectin receptor expression to wound contraction. J Cell Biol 110:133-146, 1990.
  • Clark RAF: Fibronectin matrix deposition and fibronectin receptor expression in healing and normal skin. J Invest Dermatol 94:128S-134S, 1990.
  • Kellerman PS, Clark RA, Hoilien CA, Linas SL and Molitoris BA: Role of microfilaments in maintenace of proximal tubule structure and functional integrity. Am J. Physiol. 259:279-285, 1990
  • Wikner NE, Elder JT, Clark RAF: Transforming growth factor-beta modulates plasminogen activator activity and plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 expression in human keratinocytes in vitro. J Invest Dermatol. 95:607-613, 1990.
  • Doherty DE, Henson PM, Clark RAF: Fibronectin fragments containing the RGDS cell binding domain mediate monocyte migration into the rabbit lung: A mechanism for neutrophil dependent monocyte accumulation. J Clin Invest.,86:1065-1075, 1990.
  • Shaw RJ, Doherty DE, Ritter A, Benedict SH, Clark RAF: Adherence-dependent human monocyte PDGF(B) gene activation is associated with increases in c-fos, c-jun and EFG-2 mRNA. J Cell Biol., 111: 2139-2148, 1990.
  • Shaw RJ, Clark RAF, Benedict SH, King Jr TE: Pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis in interstitial lung disease: Alveolar macrophage PDGF(B) gene activation and up-regulation by interferon gamma. Am Rev Resp Dis., 143:167-173, 1991.
  • Gailit J, Pierschbacher M, Clark RAF: Expression of functional a4b1 integrin by human dermal fibroblasts. J Invest Dermatol, 100:323-328, 1993.
  • Clark, RAF : Regulation of fibroplasia in cutaneous wound repair. Am J Med Sci, 306:42-48, 1993
  • Sugahara K, Kiyota T, Clark RAF, Mason R: The effect of fibronectin on cytoskeleton structure and transepithelial resistance of alveolar type II cells in primary culture. Virchows Archiv B Cell Pathol 64:115-122, 1993.
  • Polarek JW, Clark RAF, Pickett M, Pierschbacher MD: Development of a provisional extracellular matrix to promote wound healing. Wounds 6:46-53, 1994.
  • Brooks P, Clark RAF, Cheresh DA: Requirement of vascular integrin avb3 for angiogenesis. Science, 264:569-571,1994.
  • Gailit J, Welch MP, Clark RAF: TGF-b1 stimulates expression of keratinocyte integrins during re-epithelialization of cutaneous wounds. J Invest Dermatol, 103: 221-227, 1994.
  • Ohta K, Mortenson R, Clark, RAF, Hirose N, King TEJr: Immnunohistochemical identification and characterization of smooth muscle cells in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. J Resp Crit Care Med, 152:1659-1665, 1995.
  • Clark RAF, Nielsen LD,Welch MP, McPherson JM: Collagen matrices attenuate the collagen synthetic response of fibroblasts to TGF-beta. J Cell Sci., 108:1251-1261, 1995.
  • Meng H, Tonnesen MG, Marchese MJ, Clark RAF, Bahou WF, Gruber BL: Mast cells are potent regulators of endothelial cell adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. J Cell Physiol, 165:40-53, 1995.
  • Meng H, Marchese MJ, Garlick JA, Jelasco A, Korn JH, Gailit J, Clark RAF, Gruber BL: Mast cells induce T-cell adhesion to human fibroblasts by regulating ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression. J Invest Dermatol 105:789-796, 1995.
  • Xu J and Clark RAF: Extracellular matrix alters PDGF regulation of fibroblast integrins. J Cell Biol 132:239-249, 1996.
  • Haapasalmi K, Zhang K, Tonnesen MG, Olerud J, Sheppard D, Salo T, Kramer R, Clark RAF, Uitto V-J, Larjava H: Keratinocytes in human wounds express avb6 integrin. J Invest Dermatol 106:42-48, 1996.
  • Gailit J and Clark RAF: The role of av and b1 integrins in the adhesion of human dermal fibroblasts to provisional matrix proteins fibronectin, vitronectin and fibrinogen. J Invest Dermatol 106:102-108, 1996.
  • Clark RAF, Tonnesen MG, Gailit J, Cheresh DA: Transient functional expression of avb3 on vascular cells during wound repair. Am J Path 148:1407-1421, 1996.
  • Clark RAF, Spencer J, Lajarva H, Ferguson MWJ: Reepithelialization of normal human excisional wounds is associated with a switch from avb5 to avb6 integrins. Br J Dermatol 135:46-51, 1996.
  • Xu J, Zutter MM, Santaro SA, Clark RAF: PDGF stimulates human dermal fibroblasts to express the a2 integrin gene through a PKC-z pathway. J Cell Biol 134:1301-1311, 1996.
  • McClain S, Simon M, Jones E, Nandi A, Gailit J, Tonnesen MG, Newman D, Clark RAF: Mesenchymal cell activation is the rate limiting step of granulation tissue induction. Am J Path 149:1257-1270, 1996.
  • Gailit J, Xu J, Bueller H, Clark RAF: Platelet-derived growth factor and inflammatory cytokines have differential effects on the expression of integrins a1b1 and a5b1 by human dermal fibroblasts in vitro. J Cell Physiol 169:281-289, 1996.
  • Clark RAF, McCoy G, Folkvord J, McPherson J: TGF-b stimulates cultured human fibroblasts to proliferate and produce tissue-like fibroplasia: An extracellular matrix dependent event. J Cell Physiol 170:69-80, 1997.
  • Xu J and Clark RAF: A three-dimensional collagen lattice induces protein kinase C-z activity: Role in a2 integrin and interstitial collagenase-1 mRNA expression. J Cell Biol, 136:473-483, 1997.
  • Greiling D and Clark RAF: Fibronectin provides a conduit for fibroblast transmigration from collagenous stroma to fibrin clot provisional matrix. J Cell Sci, 110:861-870, 1997.
  • Gailit J, Clarke C, Newman D, Tonnesen MG, Mosesson MW, Clark RAF: Human fibroblasts bind directly to fibrinogen at RGD sites through integrin avb3. Exp Cell Res, 232:118-126, 1997.
  • Klein PA, Greene WH, Fuhrer J, Clark RAF: Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in outpatients with psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, or HIV infection. Arch Dermatol, 133:1463-1465, 1997.
  • Xu J, Zutter M, Santoro S, Clark RAF: A three-dimensional collagen lattice activates NF-kB in human dermal fibroblasts: Role in integrin a2 gene expression and tissue remodeling. J Cell Biol, 140:709-719, 1998.
  • Thakur BK, Bernardi DM, Murali MR, McClain SA, Clark RAF: Invasive cutaneous aspergillosis complicating immunosuppressive therapy for recalcitrant pemphigus vulgaris. J Am Acad Dermatol, 38: 488-490, 1998.
  • Klein PA, Clark RAF, Nicol, NH: Acute infection with Trichophyton rubrum associated with flares of atopic dermatiitis. Cutis 63:171-172, 1999.
  • Gorodetsky R, Clark RAF, An J, Gailit J, Ledvansky L, Vexler A, Berman E, Marx G: Fibrin microbeads (FMB) as biodegradable carriers for culturing cells and for accelerating wound healing. J Invest Dermatol 112:866-872, 1999.
  • Klein PA, Clark RAF: The efficacy of antihistamines in relieving pruritus in atopic dermatitis: an evidence-based review of the literature. Arch Dermatol. 135:1522-1525, 1999.
  • Feng X, Clark RAF, Galanakis D, and Tonnesen MG: Fibrin and collagen differentially regulate human dermal microvascular endothelial cell integrins: Stabilization of av/b3 mRNA by fibrin. J Invest Dermatol, 113:913-919, 1999.
  • Callen JP, Bernardi DM, Clark RAF, Weber DA: Adult-onset recalcitrant eczema: a marker of non cutaneous lymphoma or leukemia. J Am Acad Dermatol 43:207-210, 2000.
  • Xu J, Clark RAF, Parks WC: p38 mitogen-activated kinase is a bidirectional regulator of human fibroblast collagenase-1 induction by three-dimensional collagen lattices. Biochem J 355:437-447, 2000.
  • Flugman SL, McClain SA, Clark RAF: Transient eruptive seborrheic keratosis associated with erythrodermic psoriasis and erythrodermic drug eruptions. J Am Acad Dermatol 45:S212-S214, 2001.
  • Kubo M, van der Water L, Plantefaber LC, Mosesson MW, Simon M, Tonnesen MG, Taichman L, Clark RAF: Fibrinogen and fibrin are anti-adhesive for keratinocytes: A mechanism for fibrin eschar slough during wound repair. J Invest Dermatol, 117:1369-1381, 2001.
  • Klein, P.A., Jones, E.C., Nelson, J.L., and Clark, R.A. Infectious causes of pityriasis lichenoides: a case of fulminant infectious mononucleosis. J Am Acad Dermatol 49:S151-153, 2003.
  • Clark RAF, An J-Q, Geiling D, Khan A, Schwarzbauer JE: Fibroblast migration on fibronectin requires 3 distinct functional domains. J Invest Dermatol, 121:695-705, 2003.
  • Clark RAF, Lin F, Greiling D, Couchman, JR: Fibroblast invasive migration into fibronectin/fibrin gels requires a previously uncharacterized dermatan sulfate-CD44 proteoglycan. J Invest Dermatol 122:in press, 2004.
  • Shu XZ, Ghosh K, Liu Y, Palumbo FS, Luo Y, Clark RAF, Prestwich GD: Attachment and spreading of fibroblast on an RGD peptide-modified injectable hyaluronan hydrogel. J Biomed Materials Res, 68:365-75, 2004.
  • Ren X-D, Kahek AF, Summa CA, Vinnitskaya Y, Clark RAF: RhoA activity does not correlate with focal adhesions and stress fibers after adhesion to the fibronectin cell-binding fragment or serum starvation. J Cell Biol submitted.
  • Newman D, Clark, RAF, Honkanen L, Mosesson MW, Tonnesen MG: Human dermal microvascular endothelial cells use integrin avb3 to attach to fibrinogen and fibrinogen degradation products. Am J Path, under revision.
  • Clark RAF, Spencer MJ, Herrick SA, Ashcroft G, Bini A, Kudryk B, Ferguson MWJ: Fibrinogen clears from epidermal and blood vessel matrix prior to healing of chronic wounds. Am J Path, under revision.
  • Feng X, Clark RAF, Galanakis D, Tonnesen MG: Fibrin, but not collagen, 3-dimensional matrix supports sprout angiogenesis of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells. Am J Path, under revision.
  • Clark RAF, Cullen B, Nichols E, Pratt BM, Galanakis D, Segarini P, McPherson JM: Biologic and therapeutic implications of TGF-b interactions with fibronectin and fibrin(ogen). In preparation.
  • Jones EC, Margolis D, Farmer E, Clark RAF: Treatment of actinic keratosis and prevention of squamous cell carcinoma: an evidence-based review. Arch Dermatol, In preparation.
  • Lin F and Clark RAF: Platelet-derived Growth Factor (PDGF) Induces Fibroblast Syndecan-4, a transmembrane proteoglycan required for Fibroblast Migration through Complex, 3-dimensional Extracellular Matrix. J Cell Sci In preparation.
Reviews, Chapters, Books:
  • Clark RAF, Kaplan AP: Eosinophil leukocyte: Structure and function. Clinics in Haematology 4:635-649, 1975.
  • Clark RAF, Long JC: Painful skin lesions aggravated by cold exposure in a young man, Massachusetts General Hospital Case Record. New Eng J Med 300:610-618, 1979.
  • Arndt KA, Clark RAF: Principles of topical therapy. In: Dermatology in General Medicine, Fitzpatrick, TB, Eisen, AZ, Wolff, K, Friedberg, IM, Austen, KF, eds., New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1753-1758, 1979.
  • Clark RAF: Topical glucocorticoids: Mechanisms of action. In: Weekly Dermatology Update, Princeton: Biomedia, Inc., 1:36, 1980.
  • Clark RAF: Fibronectin in the skin. J Invest Dermatol 81:475-479, 1983.
  • Clark RAF, Colvin RB: Wound repair. In: Plasma Fibronectin, McDonagh, J, ed., Marcel Dekker, Amsterdam, 197-262, 1985.
  • Clark RAF, Tonnesen MG: Dermatologic disorders. In: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics in Nursing, Wiener M and Pepper G, eds. 2nd Edition, McGraw Hill, 755-775, 1985.
  • Clark RAF: Cutaneous wound repair: Basic biologic considerations. J Am Acad Dermatol 13:701-725, 1985.
  • Reed BR, Clark RAF: Cutaneous wound repair: Practical aspects. J Am Acad Dermatol 13:919-941, 1985.
  • Larsen GL, Wilson MC, Clark RAF, Behrens BL: The inflammatory reaction within the airways in an animal model of the late asthmatic response. Fed Proc 46:105-112, 1987.
  • Atkins FM, Clark RAF: Mast cells and fibrosis. Arch Dermatol 123:191–193, 1987.
  • Nicol N, Clark RAF: Therapy of atopic dermatitis. In: Current Therapy in Dermatology, Farmer E and Provost T, eds. BC Decker, Inc., Philadelphia, pp. 28-33, 1988.
  • Clark RAF: Potential roles for fibronectin in wound repair. Arch Dermatol 124:201-206, 1988.
  • Clark RAF: General considerations and overview of wound repair. In: The Molecular and Cellular Biology of Wound Repair, Clark RAF and Henson PM, eds. Plenum Press, Inc., New York, pp. 3-33, 1988.
  • Dvorak HF, Kaplan AP, Clark RAF: Significance of coagulation in wound repair. In: The Molecular and Cellular Biology of Wound Repair, Clark RAF, Henson PM, eds. Plenum Press, Inc., New York, pp. 57-85, 1988.
  • Wikner NE, Clark RAF: Isolation of chemotactically active fibronectin fragments. In: Methods of Enzymology, DiSabato G, ed. Academic Press, New York, 162:214-222, 1988.
  • Clark RAF: Cutaneous wound repair: Molecular and cellular controls. In: Progress in Dermatology, Dermatology Foundation, Evanston, IL, 22:1-12, 1988.
  • Clark RAF: Cell-mediated and IgE-mediated immunity in atopic dermatitis. Arch Dermatol 125:413-416, 1989.
  • Adinoff AD, Clark RAF: The allergic nature of atopic dermatitis. Allergy Immunol Pract 11:191-202, 1989.
  • Adinoff AD, Clark RAF: Food and aeroallergen hypersensitivity in atopic dermatitis. Ped Asthma Allergy and Immunol 2:255-268, 1989.
  • Shaw RJ, Clark RAF: Interleukins and their interactions in inflammation. In: Handbook of Inflammation, Vol 6, Henson PM, Murphy RC eds., Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 245-267, 1989.
  • Clark RAF: Complexities at the cell-stroma interface. Cell 59 (5):775-776, 1989.
  • Clark RAF: Fibronectin in the skin. In: Fibronectin in Health and Disease, Carson S, ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 201-214, 1989.
  • Clark RAF: Wound repair. In: Curr Opin Cell Biol 1:1000-1008, 1989.
  • Clark RAF, Nicol N, Adinoff AD: Atopic dermatitis: Current concepts in the management of the patients with atopic dermatitis. Mod Med, 58:78-94, 1989.
  • Clark RAF, Nicol N, Adinoff AD: Atopic dermatitis. In: Principles and Practice of Dermatology, Sams M and Lynch P eds., WB Saunders, Philadelphia, PA, pp. 365-380, 1990.
  • Clark RAF: Pathophysiology of wound healing. In: Pathophysiology of Dermatologic Diseases, 2nd edition, Soter NA, Baden HP eds., McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, pp 369-376, 1991.
  • Clark RAF: Cutaneous wound repair: a review with emphasis on integrin receptor expression. In: Wound Healing, Janssen H., ed, Wrightson Biomedical Publishing, Ltd., Hampshire England, pp. 7-17, 1991.
  • Clark RAF: Cutaneous wound repair. In: Biochemistry and Physiology of the Skin, Goldsmith LA, ed., Oxford University Press, London, 1991, pp. 576-601.
  • Clark, RAF: The commonality of skin and lung repair. Chest 99(3):57s-60s, 1991.
  • Clark, RAF: Viewpoint: wound repair. J. Cell Biochem, 46: 1-2, 1991.
  • Clark RAF, Hopkins TT : The other eczemas. In: Dermatology, 3rd edition. Moschella SL, Hurley HJ, eds., WB Saunders, Philadelphia, PA, 1992, pp. 465-504.
  • Gailit J, Clark RAF: Integrins in the skin. In: Advances in Dermatology, Volume 8. Callen J, Dahl M eds., Mosby Yearbook, Chicago, IL, 1993, pp. 129-152.
  • Clark RAF: Atopic dermatitis. In: Conn’s Current Therapy, Rakel RE, ed., WB Saunders Co., Philadelphia, 1993, pp. 809-812.
  • Clark RAF: Mechanisms of cutaneous wound repair. In: Dermatology in General Medicine, 4th edition. Fitzpatrick TB, Eisen AZ, Wolff K, Freedberg IM, Austin KF, eds., McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1993, pp. 473- 483.
  • Clark RAF: Cutaneous wound repair. In: Leg Ulcers: Diagnosis and Treatment. Westerhof W, ed., Elsevier Science Publishing, 1993.
  • Clark, RAF: Contraction on the extracellular matrix during cutaneous wound repair. In: Proceedings of the 18th World Congress of Dermatology, Burgdorf WHC, Katz SI eds. Parthenon Press, 1993, pp. 989-994.
  • Clark RAF: Basics of cutaneous wound repair. J Dermatol Surg Oncol , 19:693-706,1993.
  • Clark RAF: The biology of dermal wound repair. Dermatologic Clinics. 11:647-666, 1993.
  • Gailit J, Clark RAF: Wound repair in the context of extracellular matrix. Curr Opin Cell Biol 6:717-725, 1994.
  • Clark RAF, Mustoe TA: Editorial. "Commentary on Regulatory Concerns in the Development of Topical Recombinant Ophthalmic and Cutaneous Wound Healing Biologics." Wound Rep Reg 2:154, 1994.
  • Hopkins T, Clark RAF: Eczemas - a classification and principles of therapy. In: Current Practice of Medicine, Volume 1 Dermatology, Callen JP ed, Current Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, 1995, pp 68-76.
  • Adinoff AD, Clark RAF: Atopic dermatitis. In: Allergy, Asthma and Immunology from Infancy to Adulthood. Bierman WC, Pearlman DS, Shapiro GG, and Busse WW, eds. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, PA, 1995, pp 613-632.
  • Kristal L, Clark RAF: Atopic dermatitis. In: Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery Arndt K, LeBoit P, Robinson J, and Wintroub BU eds., WB Saunders Co, Philadelphia, PA, 1995, pp 195-204.
  • Clark RAF, Kristal, L: Atopic dermatitis. In: Principles and Practice of Dermatology, 2nd edition, Sams M, Lynch P, eds., WB Saunders, Philadelphia, PA, 1996, pp 403-418.
  • Clark RAF: Wound repair: Overview and general considerations. In: The Molecular and Cellular Biology of Wound Repair. Clark, RAF ed. Plenum Press, New York, NY, 1996, pp 3-50.
  • Yamada KM and Clark RAF: Provisional matrix. In: The Molecular and Cellular Biology of Wound Repair. Clark, RAF ed. Plenum Press, New York, NY, 1996, pp 51-93.
  • Yamada KM, Gailit J and Clark RAF: Integrins in wound repair. In: The Molecular and Cellular Biology of Wound Repair. Clark, RAF ed. Plenum Press, New York, NY, 1996, pp 311-338.
  • Clark RAF ed., The Molecular and Cellular Biology of Wound Repair. Plenum Press, New York, NY, 1996.
  • Kristal L, Kalish R, Clark RAF: Atopic dermatitis; Contact dermatitis and Photoallergies. In: Allergy. Kaplan AP, ed., 1997, Chapter 36.
  • Clark RAF, Wound repair: Lessons for tissue engineering. In: Principles of Tissue Engineering. Lanza RP, Langer R, Chick WL, ed., Academic Press, 1997, pp 737-768.
  • Feingold S, Huang C, Kristal L, Kalsih R, Clark RAF: Eczemas. Curr Prob Dermatol 10:41-92, 1998.
  • Clark RAF: Mechanisms of cutaneous wound repair. In: Dermatology in General Medicine, 5th edition. Fitzpatrick TB, Eisen AZ, Wolff K, Freedberg IM, Austin KF, eds., McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1999, pp 326-341.
  • Clark RAF, McPherson JM: Collagen matices attenuate fibroblast response to TGF-b. In: Tissue Engineering of Vascular Prosthetic Grafts. Zilla P, Greisler HP, ed., R G Landes Co., 1999, pp 343-353.
  • Singer AJ, Clark RAF: Mechanisms of Disease: cutaneous wound healing. New Eng J Med 341:738-746, 1999.
  • Clark RAF and Tonnesen MG. Integrins in Skin Biology and Pathophysiology. In: Biology of the Skin, Woodley DT and Reinkel RK, eds., McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1999, pp.
  • Clark RAF, Singer AJ: Wound repair: basic biology to tissue engineering. In: Principles of Tissue Engineering. 2nd Edition, Lanza RP, Langer R, Chick WL, ed., Academic Press, 2000, pp 857-878.
  • Clark RAF: Fibrin sealant in wound repair: a systematic survey of the literature. Exp Opin Invest Drugs 9:2371-2392, 2000.
  • Tonnesen MG, Feng X, Clark RAF: Angiogenesis in wound healing. J Invest Dermatol Symposium Proceed 5:40-46, 2000.
  • Clark RAF: Fibrin and wound healing. Ann NY Acad Sci, 936:355-367, 2001.
  • Singer AJ and Clark RAF: The biology of wound healing. In: Lacerations and Acute Wounds: An Evidence-based Guide. F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, 2002, pp 1-8.
  • Clark RAF: Epithelial-mesenchymal networks in wounds: A hierarchical view. Commentary. J Invest Dermatol 120:ix-xi, 2003.
  • Clark RAF: Fibrin is a many splendored thing. Commentary. J Invest Dermatol 121:xxi-xxii, 2003.
  • Clark RAF: Fibrin glue for wound repair: fact or fancy. Thromb Haemostasis 90:1003-1006, 2003.

Patents

  • US Patent 5,958,874 Recombinant fibronectin-based extracellular matrix for wound healing, September 28, 1999.
  • US Patent 6,194,378 Fibronectin peptides-based extracellular matrix for wound healing, February 27, 2001.